Living Inclusion in Practice: Advancing Inclusive TVET in Viet Nam

The Vietnamese economy has been growing rapidly over the past few decades, and every year more and more young people are entering the labour market. However, most of them do not have formal vocational qualifications and do not meet the requirements of enterprises. This is where Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) becomes essential. TVET equips young people and workers with the skills they need to secure decent jobs and support the long-term development of the economy. And of course, it is key to ensure that quality education and training is available to all, so that everyone can benefit from development and participate equally in all aspects of society and the economy. 

Trainees of the "Reform of TVET" programme Viet nam/GIZ Viet Nam
Trainees of the "Reform of TVET" programme Viet nam. Picture by GIZ Viet Nam

The Eight Areas of Intervention

Currently, persons with disabilities and other marginalised groups are still under-represented in TVET and face barriers to full participation. The programme “Reform of TVET in Vietnam”, commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and implemented by GIZ, is working to change this. Collaborating with the Vietnamese Directorate of Vocational Education and Training as well as with several partner training providers and businesses, they aim to improve gender equality and inclusion in the Vietnamese TVET sector. The programme has identified eight priority areas of intervention to focus on: 

  • Promoting a comprehensive and strong policy framework with clear guidelines for implementation and monitoring. 
  • Improving TVET’s image and promoting inclusive enrolment for persons with disabilities. 
  • Strengthening the organisational processes and capacities of TVET institutions (for example administration, management, HR) to foster inclusivity. 
  • Assessing and improving infrastructure, learning platforms and materials to become accessible. 
  • Developing the capacity of teachers and in-company trainers to deliver inclusive, high-quality training based on diverse teaching and learning methods. 
  • Creating inclusive school cultures, by fostering open, and non-discriminatory environments. 
  • Strengthening networks among trainees. 
  • Engaging with companies in training, job matching and transition, to promote decent employment opportunities for TVET graduates with disabilities. 

We believe that interventions in all areas need to be based on strong networks between learners, training providers, Organisations of Persons with Disabilities, and the community. 

The Programme "Reform of TVET" in Action

Picture of boy and girl in a training session with the program Reform
Training session of the program Reform. Picture by GIZ Viet Nam.

Together with government agencies, partner colleges, Organisations of Persons with Disabilities (OPDs), international development organisations, and education specialists, the programme has developed the first training programme for TVET teachers on inclusive teaching and learning methods, supported by the Directorate of Vocational Education and Training of Vietnam. This training programme can be used in a blended format, combining on-site with e-learning course. It was developed on the digital learning platform  

Furthermore, a related Digital Accessibility Toolkit helps vocational education and training teachers, managers and administrators to create learning materials, virtual classrooms and platforms that are accessible to all. The programme has also worked with partners to strengthen capacity for infrastructure, accessibility assessment, inclusive PR, and trainee management. Through videos showcasing inclusive training environments and career days for students with disabilities, partner colleges are promoting enrolment in formal training. 

Scholarships from the programme so far has enabled 84 persons with disabilities to participate in short and long-term training at partner TVET institutions. At the policy level, the objective of developing an open, flexible, and inclusive TVET system was integrated into the TVET Strategy 2021-2030. 

Looking Forward

Trainee of the "Reform of TVET" programme Vietnam during a training session.
Trainee of the "Reform of TVET" programme during a training session. Picture by GIZ Viet Nam

In the next phase of the programme, which started in March 2024, we look forward to taking these efforts to the next level. Cooperation with companies for engagement in training and career transition will be expanded. Further strengthening of TVET institutions and inclusive cultures, environment, and networks will be initiated. Finally, we will be improving the policy framework for quality training and education for all. 

For more information on the programme, visit: or contact Ms. Thoan Ha Thi at 

Article by GIZ Vietnam

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